Understanding Cannabis

What is Cannabis (Marijuana)

The following information is taken from the article “A Quick Take on Cannabis and Its Effects” found on www.Healthline.com. To read the actual article click here.

Cannabis (Marijuana) refers to a group of three plants with psychoactive properties, known as Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis.

When the flowers of these plants are harvested and dried, you’re left with one of the most common drugs in the world. Some call it weed, some call it pot, and others call it marijuana.

As weed becomes legal in more areas, names for it are evolving. Today, more and more people are using the term cannabis to refer to weed.

Some argue that it’s a more accurate name. Others feel it’s more neutral compared with terms like weed or pot, which some people associate with its illegal use. Also, the term “marijuana” is falling out of favor due to its racist history.

Cannabis is usually consumed for its relaxing and calming effects. In some U.S. states, it’s also prescribed to help with a range of medical conditions, including chronic pain, glaucoma, and poor appetite.

Keep in mind that while cannabis comes from a plant and is considered natural, it can still have strong effects, both positive and negative.

What is Cannabis (Marijuana)

Cannabis is made up of more than 120 components, which are known as cannabinoids. Experts still aren’t sure what each cannabinoid does, but they have a pretty good understanding of two of them, known as cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Each has its own effects and uses:

  • This is a psychoactive cannabinoid, yet it’s non-intoxicating and non-euphoric, meaning it won’t get you “high.” It’s often used to help reduce inflammation and pain. It may also ease nausea, migraine, seizures, and anxiety. (Epidiolex is the first and only prescription medication to contain CBD and be approved by the Food and Drug Administration or FDA. This medication is used to treat certain kinds of epilepsy.) Researchers are still trying to fully understand the effectiveness of CBD’s medical use.
  • This is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis. THC is responsible for the “high” that most people associate with cannabis.

Read more about the differences between THC and CBD.

You can find cannabis products that contain just CBD, THC, or a combination of both. But the dried flower that most people associate with cannabis contains both cannabinoids, though certain strains may have much more of one than the other. Hemp has large quantities of CBD, but no THC.

What are the short-term effects of cannabis?

Using cannabis can have a range of short-term effects. Some are beneficial, but others are more concerning.

Some of the more desirable short-term effects include:

  • relaxation
  • giddiness
  • experiencing things around you, such as sights and sounds, more intensely
  • increased appetite
  • altered perception of time and events
  • focus and creativity

These effects are often minimal in products containing very high levels of CBD, compared with THC.

But cannabis can also have some problematic side effects for certain people. Side effects may include:

  • coordination issues
  • delayed reaction time
  • nausea
  • lethargy
  • anxiety
  • increased heart rate
  • decreased blood pressure
  • paranoia

Again, these effects are less common in products containing more CBD than THC.

The short-term effects of cannabis can also vary based on your method of consumption. If you smoke cannabis, you’ll feel the effects within minutes. But if you orally ingest cannabis, such as in a capsule or food, it may be several hours before you feel anything.

In addition, cannabis often comes in different strains. These are loose categories used to indicate the effects of different cannabis products. Here’s a primer on some common strains and their potential effects.

What are the long-term effects of cannabis?

Experts are still trying to fully understand the long-term effects of using cannabis. There’s lots of conflicting research on this topic, and many of the existing studies have only looked at animals.

Many more large, long-term studies in humans are needed to fully understand the lasting effects of cannabis use.

Brain development

Research from 2014Trusted Source highlights the potential impact of cannabis on brain development when used during adolescence.

According to this research, people who start using cannabis in their teens tend to have more memory and learning problems than those who don’t use cannabis in their teens. But it’s unclear if these effects are permanent.

People who start using cannabis in their teens may also have a higher risk for mental health issues later in life, including schizophrenia. But experts still aren’t sure how strong this link is.

 Dependence

Some people can also become dependent on cannabis. Others even experience withdrawal symptoms when not using cannabis, such as irritability, low appetite, and mood swings.

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, people who start using cannabis before the age of 18 are four to seven times more likely to develop a cannabis use disorder than those who start using it later in life.

Respiratory problems

Smoking cannabis carries similar risks to smoking tobacco. This may be due to inflammation and irritation of the airways.

Cannabis has been associated with bronchitis, and it may be a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, recent studiesTrusted Source have shown little evidence of a link between cannabis use and lung cancer. More research is needed in this area.

The Top Ten Cannabinoids and Their Therapeutic Properties

1. THC – Tetrahydrocannabinol

Relieves chronic pain and inflammation. Reduces nausea. Increases appetite. Useful in helping to treat withdrawal symptoms. Helps with digestive problems as it works as an anti-spasmodic. Anti-tumor properties.

2. CBD – Cannabidiol

Proven to treat chronic pain. Relieve symptoms of epilepsy and reduce seizures. It is commonly used for the treatment of anxiety and depression Antipsychotic effects. Relieves feelings of nausea. Improves the efficiency of the cardiovascular system.

3. THCV – Tetrahydrocannabivarin

Proven to assist in weight-loss. Used to prevent diabetes. Helpful for those with anxiety disorders or PTSD.

4. CBDV – Cannabidivarin

CBDV contains many similar medicinal benefits to CBD. Proven in studies using mice to stop convulsions. Works well with epilepsy sufferers, reduces seizures. Possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Non-psychoactive.

5. CBG – Cannabigero

Helps with neurological disorders. Has the potential to help with skin disorders like psoriasis Antifungal effects

6. CBC – Cannabichromene

6.Blocks pain and inflammation Promotes anandamide in the body

7. CBN – Cannabinol

Can help with many issues including appetite, sleep, psoriasis, and pain.

8. THCA – Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid

Anti-emetic and anti-inflammatory Non-psychoactive

9. CBDA – Cannabidiolic Acid

Needs more study but preliminary test results indicate effectiveness in the treatment of inflammation, nausea, and psychosis, and some anti-cancer properties have been found. Non-psychoactive.

10. CBGa – Cannabigerolic Acid

Acts as a building block for other useful cannabinoids Potential as an anti-proliferative cancer treatment but needs more study. Encourages apoptosis (death of cells).

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